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Industrial textile recycling and reuse in Brazil: Textile products are present in all aspects of our lives and drive a significant part of the world economy. Issues related to enterprise competitiveness, sustainability, limitation of natural resources, environmental and social impacts are increasingly considered. In this context, the recovery and recycling of textile materials are essential.

This study aimed to present an overview of the Brazilian textile and clothing industry, highlighting the mechanical and chemical recycling processes and reuse.

We also discuss the reasons for importing textile waste, and considerations about circular economy concepts, correlating them to the key factors and obstacles involving industrial operation of textile recycling. The authors conducted technical visits to textile recycling industries in order to observe the production processes and identify their main challenges. Nevertheless, the initiatives show that Brazil is on track for industrial sustainability, following a global production trend.

Textile products are present in our homes, qudaces, workplaces and vehicles in different formats and features, and, along with the garment industry, it moves a significant share of economies worldwide, determining habits and behaviors of consumption in society Caldas, Brazil is among the top ten textile industry markets, positioned as the second major supplier of indigo and the third fabric producer, according to data from Brazilian Textile and Apparel Association ABIT, In the current economic environment, competition for new markets is increasingly fierce, and the perception of consumers for sustainable and affordable products is increasing rapidly.

That causes producers to invest in the quality of their products and in responsible waste management, not only aiming company sustainability, but also for a myriad of businesses opportunities, until the end of the product life cycle Cobra, In this context, the recovery and recycling of textiles, become more and more necessary, not only environmentally, but also economically: The ideal production model would incorporate the idea of circular economy to the heart of global value chains that exerts strategic influence on the design of the products, their consumption and the recovery of used materials, auvaces proposal of economic planning from the private sector that established goals to use material resources that depends of social reproduction Abramovay, This study aimed to present an overview of the Brazilian textile and clothing industry, highlighting the mechanical and chemical recycling processes and aduaces, with case study of companies operating in these areas.

Data related to imports of textile waste is indicated silk, wool, cotton, synthetic and artificial fiberspointing out the reasons that lead the country — one of the major producers of textiles products and clothing, and consequently a large textile waste generator — to import textile waste rather than use domestic waste. Finally, considerations about the circular economy concepts was made relating them to the main factors and apistila involving the industrial textile recycling operation, a necessary activity for the economy and the environment, but still little spread in Brazil.

Through research on the internet, twenty-one companies of spostila sizes were located in the Brazil, which carry out the industrial process of recycling through the mechanical process by breakdown the fabric into fiber through cutting and, shredding, and the chemical process of regeneration textile fibers.

Textile fiber is the raw material submitted to manufacturing processes that can be transform into yarn used in textiles or industrial products. Textile fibers can be divided into those ones found in nature for example: Figure 1 provides a non-exhaustive overview of all the fibers. Adapted from Barbosa et al. In Brazil, cotton and polyester are the most common fibers used in fabrics as seen in Table 1which lists the production of fabrics according to the fiber origin during the period from to Brazil is the fourth major producers of textiles products in the world and the fifth in the apparel production.

It is self-sufficient in cotton production and regarded as a global reference in swimwear, jeans and home textiles, producing 9.

The textile and clothing sector is the second largest employer in the Brazilian manufacturing industry, behind the food industry. There are approximately 1.

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Analyzing the relation between Brazilian textile production and the population of Brazil in — approximately million people IBGE,the consumption of textile products per individual was The Table 3 shows that the annual consumption of textile fibers per inhabitant was Brazil is the third largest exporter of cotton, the fifth largest consumer and the first in productivity in non-irrigated land land cultivation at low rainfall with a medium volume around 1. Recycling is the process in which a product or its components are used to create something new, it represents the technical form of reuse, but specifically refers to discarded items, minimizing the use audace virgin raw materials and the amount of waste disposal in landfills or sent to incineration.

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However, reuse is a general term that combines materials or items that have reusable qualities, regardless of whether the product would have the same function or not Wang, Recycling and reuse processes contributes to the management and conservation of raw materials that would otherwise be discarded, decreasing the need for new exploitation of natural resources that would be needed audacrs the production of new goods and products Abramovay et al.

The most common textile recycling process is the mechanical recycling by cutting and shredding fabric scraps, according to the capacity of the machine and the final product Wang, Figure 3 a shows the beginning of the process of cutting and shredding, with the machine loaded with jeans scraps.

The machine that performs the process is called Textile-Shredder, and can be composed of 2, 4, 6 or 8 rolls, the more rollers, greater the quality of the recycled fiber.

The rollers have different diameter with numerous needles on its surface, as shown in Figure 3 b, responsible to rip and shred the rags. They rotate at high speed, and the number of needles increases in with each roll, in order to shred completely the textile materials as shown in Figure 3 c Laroche, The design of the shredders machines works in accordance with the textile waste composition used and are capable to aposgila from 50 to 3, kilograms per hour Laroche, According to the textile aueaces composition, the shredded fibers can turn to the industry by blankets, stuffing, geotextiles and fillers or can return to the textile spinning process Wang, Chemical fibers were developed to copy and improve natural fibers characteristics and properties.

As their applications grew, they became indispensable in the day by day life, due mainly to the increase of the world population that demands garments at low cost and fast production, while reducing the vulnerability of the textile industry to potential difficulties in agricultural production Aguiar, Synthetic fibers were made from petroleum-derived resins and its use is widespread in all segments of the textile and clothing industry.

Only polyester, polyamide and elastane can be recycled through the chemical regeneration process Wang, Three different patents of synthetic fibers chemical regeneration were available in public domain on apstila Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property website. Initially the fiber separation take place according to the color and quality of audacees yarn.

The textile waste is placed inside a stainless-steel tank with formic acid. The contents of the tank pass through a filter that retains the solid part in aapostila of a lightweight foam spandex. The foam is washed to remove any residue of polyamide. Finally, the polyamide deposited in the condenser in form of a thick mass that can be reused in the textile industry or in the chemical industry of plastics Wolft, In this process, the dissolution of the fiber occurs without modifying the molecular structure of the polyamide pure or as raw material for the production of engineering plastics Heilberg, The difference between polyamide 6 and polyamide 6.

In order to auxaces textile products, the template pieces that compose the garment are drawn on top of several layers of fabric, which is distributed in a way to maximize the use of the fabric. The Figure 4 illustrates the cutting operation, in which the fabric is layered spread and cut to develop a particular garment.

The spreading fabric in layers not covered by the templates chips are the textile waste. Through online research, twenty-one companies of different sizes were located in Brazil. All of them perform the recycling aduaces through the mechanical process of shredding or chemical fibers regeneration process Table 4. Although the companies permitted the disclosure of the following information, they requested to remain unidentified.

The companies were classified in accordance with the classification criteria of IBGE Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statisticsby the number of apoostila. According to these criteria, is considered micro-industry those companies with 19 employees or less; small industry, from 20 to 99 employees; medium industry from to employees and with over employees a large industry IBGE, Even so, all five industries visited claimed that they could use post-consumption waste from domestic and industrial clothing, professional uniforms, bedding, rugs and carpets, etc.

The separation of the textile waste happens inside the company, and part of the waste collected is discarded again for being too dirty. The acquisition prices between those companies are similar Table 6.

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The expenses with logistics and transport, along with the absence of any tax incentives, make, in some cases, the cost of recycled textile fibers equal to the cost of virgin raw materials, leading some industries to purchase imported textile waste, for being cheaper and also have the advantage of coming apart by color and composition.

The national industry that reuse recycled product as raw material for clothing, automobiles, packages and other, absorbs more than the country collects and recycles. Generating the need to import.

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Thus, in the year ofat least Between January and June of the later year, In this context, the Brazilian imports of rags and aposila silk, wool, cotton apstila other synthetic and artificial fibers — by State and by Country, indicate that there is paostila textile waste market to be understood and exploited internally.

The imported volume, however, is still quite significant given the availability and production of textile waste apoatila the country. The major exporting countries by volume are Honduras, Turkey and others, such as Bangladesh Table 8countries with tradition in textiles and clothing, however, with industrial production lower than Brazil. InBrazil was responsible for 2. According to Zonatti et al. The major problems indicated are: His study emphasizes that Brazilian market also disregards the potential of clothing articles discarded by individuals after consumption, due to the lack of studies on the possibilities of recycling.

As mentioned before, the textile waste is classified as aydaces, the waste from the production of yarns, fabrics and clothing and audaaces industrial and domestictextile and garment discarded after use because they are worn, damaged or outdated. Considering only the disposal of apparel, between 9. The leftovers go to settlement or bazars. The present research did not find specific information about post-consumption disposal of domestic textile and apparel at national or regional level.

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In General, each Brazilian produces on average pounds of trash per year, over one kilogram of waste per day Barbosa, Which grasps 63 million tons in 12 months. In this context, the post-consumption waste of professional uniforms represents another market for the recycling industry.

The standardization of professional uniforms provides good communication and identification for the employees, and brings benefits like safety, comfort, self-esteem and good impression on external public in audzces to the company’s image. It also shows that the company has trained his employee for a specific function, adding to the professional the identification of an expert on a subject Zonatti et al.

Each employee receives three units of each piece that makes up the uniform, depending on the function; the employee can have up to four different parts, such as pants, shirt, jacket, apron, coat, etc.

The disposal procedure of the uniforms consists in manually remove any identification or logo, either embroidered or printed. Then the uniforms partially destroyed are send to landfills, which creates additional costs for the company.

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Aside the chemical and mechanical recycling of textile waste already addressed is it possible to reuse uniforms to manufacture other pieces.

Several groups and NGOs already worked with the reuse of textile waste, as an example, the Ecotece Institute ECOTECE, and the social enterprise Retalharwhich work exclusively with the reuse of professional uniforms discarded by workers of several industrial segments.

This groups and NGOs transformed the uniforms into corporate gifts, such as cases and bags, produced by an inclusive workforce. Usually the company that provide the uniforms buy those corporate gifts to distribute for their employees in internal campaigns about sustainability Ferreira, The corporate gifts have the intention to take the brand or company known for all the society, in order to generate affinity, loyalty, promote sales and awareness, always seeking brand promotion and strengthening business relationships.

The decline of natural resources led many countries to seek ways to increase their resilience to a deficit in supply of industrial raw materials Lovins, Thus, recycling waste and leftovers from manufacturing processes to make new products is a cheap and effective solution Stahel, ; Zonatti et al.

Recently, the term gained popularity among global companies thanks to its environmental benefits, transforming waste into useful resources for the manufacture of new products and the possibility to increase profits and competitiveness of companies, being a generic definition for business models and processes that do not generate industrial wastes, but instead reuse natural resources repeatedly.

As conceived by its creators, circular economy consists of a cycle of continuous positive development that preserves and enhances natural capital, optimizing the production of resources and minimizing risks, through finite inventory management and renewable fluxes, at any industrial scale Stahel, According to the Ellen MacArthur Foundationcircular economy has the ambition to keep products, components and materials on its highest level of usefulness and value all the time, not just recycling, but also revaluing throughout the productive processes, whether these are biological or technical cycles.

Concept developed by John t. Lyle in the United States, whose approach was based on the theory of design oriented process, describing processes to restore, renew and revitalize its own sources of energy and materials, creating sustainable systems that incorporate the society needs with nature integrity.